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    A Brief Account of the Destruction of the Indies, by Bartolome de las Casas

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    Maximus

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    A Brief Account of the Destruction of the Indies, by Bartolome de las Casas

    Post by Maximus on Tue Mar 03, 2015 10:08 pm


    The Naming of Hispaniola

    When Columbus took possession of the island in 1492, he named it Insula Hispana, meaning "the Spanish Island" in Latin[7] and La Isla Española, meaning "the Spanish Island", in Spanish.[8]

    Bartolomé de las Casas shortened the name to "Española", and when Pietro Martyr d‘Anghiera detailed his account of the island in Latin, he translated the name as Hispaniola.[8] Because Anghiera's literary work was translated into English and French in a short period of time, the name "Hispaniola" became the most frequently used term in English-speaking countries for the island in scientific and cartographic works.




    A Short Account of the Destruction of the Indies[2] (Spanish: Brevísima relación de la destrucción de las Indias) is an account written by the Spanish Dominican friar Bartolomé de las Casas in 1542 (published in 1552) about the mistreatment of the indigenous peoples of the Americas in colonial times and sent to then Prince Philip II of Spain.[1]

    He wrote it for Charles I of Spain.[1] One of the stated purposes for writing the account is his fear of Spain coming under divine punishment and his concern for the souls of the Native peoples.[citation needed] The account is one of the first attempts by a Spanish writer of the colonial era to depict examples of unfair treatment that indigenous people endured in the early stages of the Spanish conquest of the Greater Antilles, particularly the island of Hispaniola.[citation needed] Las Casas's point of view can be described as being heavily against some of the Spanish methods of colonization, which, as he describes, inflicted a great loss on the indigenous occupants of the islands. He described extensive use of torture, murder, and mutilation against the Natives by the Spaniards.

    His account was largely responsible for the passage of the new Spanish colonial laws known as the New Laws of 1542, which abolished native slavery for the first time in European colonial history and led to the Valladolid debate.[citation needed]

    The images described by Las Casas were later depicted by Theodor de Bry in copper plate engravings that helped expand the Black Legend against Spain.

    It was republished in 1620, by Jan Evertszoon Cloppenburch, alongside the book Origin and progress of the disturbances in the Netherlands by Dutch historian Johannes Gysius.[1]


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    Re: A Brief Account of the Destruction of the Indies, by Bartolome de las Casas

    Post by Maximus on Tue Mar 03, 2015 10:08 pm

    A Short Account of the Destruction of the Indies[2] (Spanish: Brevísima relación de la destrucción de las Indias)

    http://www.gutenberg.org/cache/epub/20321/pg20321.html
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    Re: A Brief Account of the Destruction of the Indies, by Bartolome de las Casas

    Post by Maximus on Tue Mar 03, 2015 10:19 pm



    4
    of the palaces were obtained from coral deposits. Now while in most parts of the world only red corals are found, in the Caribbean there exist corals of three colours, red, yellow and grey. D – we had considered as the likely cause of the Atlantis catastrophe, an asteroid-comet impact over an ocean. However we now consider more likely the passage of a large body near Earth, a body of mass comparable with that of our planet. For reasons presented elsewhere, see Spedicato (2010), we think that this event provides a better explanation of what happened, including the survival of mankind in isolated places on high mountain ranges as Caucasus, New Guinea, Ethiopia…. We also claim the possible origin of the Moon by capture from the body that approached Earth, see our paper in these Proceedings. Within this context we see Mars as a previous satellite and therefore we can explain the presence of water and probably of life on Mars until just a few thousand years ago. Part of these ideas reflect, extend and modify ideas in Velikovsky (1950) and Ackerman (1996). 2. GEOGRAPHIC DATA IN BARTOLOMÈ DE LAS CASAS ABOUT HISPANIOLA COMPARed WITH PLATO'S DATA ON ATLANTIS This paper was suggested by the book (2006), a Venetian translation made in 1643, and called
    Breve relazione sulla distruzione delle Indie,
    of a book in Spanish by Bartolomé de las Casas, a Spanish Dominican friar, 1484-1566. He spent many years in Hispaniola, Mexico, Venezuela, Guatemala, just after the conquest, becoming bishop, a function he gave up after some time. In 1542 he wrote the quoted book, which is a dramatic description of the crimes committed by the Spaniards in their exploitation of the Indio, reduced within few years to a small fraction of their previous number. In the chapter about Hispaniola we were amazed to find a description of the island that very closely recalls the one of Plato for the island of Atlantis. In the next section we compare the two descriptions. We conclude that they support our identification of the island of Atlantis with Hispaniola. Here we give the geographic information on Hispaniola in the quoted book, in the chapter
    The kingdoms that existed in the island Hispaniola,
    our translation from Italian into English
    .
    https://www.academia.edu/10973532/ATLANTIS_IN_HISPANIOLA_
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    Re: A Brief Account of the Destruction of the Indies, by Bartolome de las Casas

    Post by Maximus on Tue Mar 03, 2015 10:28 pm

    Emilio Spedicato, University of Bergamo, Italy

    WAS ATLANTIS IN HISPANIOLA? ARGUMENTS IN FAVOUR


    Information on Atlantis is available from two works of Plato, the Critias and the Timaeus. In these works Critias provides information he got when he was a child seventy years before, from his grandfather, who obtained it from Dropides, a friend of Solon. Solon's source was an old priest he met in Sais, the Egyptian delta city where a "priest university" was located.

    The priest told that the most ancient event Solon himself could recall, namely the flood of Deucalion, was not so ancient. Indeed it was only the last great catastrophe of a series of several ones, among which three were "great". The greatest one occurred some 9000 years before their time.

    At that time, Atlantis, a great power located on an island beyond the columns of Herakles,
    • was in control of other islands beyond
    • and of part of the continent surrounding {\it the true ocean}.
    • Atlantis tried to conquer the whole Mediterranean area, where it was already in control of Africa up to Lybia
    • and of Europe up to Italy.
    • Atlantis was defeated by a coalition of ancestors of the Egyptians and the Greeks.
    • Soon after the war a great catastrophe occurred suddenly, characterized by huge repeated sea waves that devastated the coasts of the Mediterranean area, so much that Egypt could be repopulated only a thousand years after. The catastrophe was attributed to changes in the orbit of some celestial body. Later on people searching for the Atlantis island could not find it, the ocean region where it was located having become "muddy".


    Details are also given on the Atlantis island, both geographical and about the political and economical system (the island was governed by a dynasty of "semigods"). Among the geographical details we cite the following: high mountains, rivers, lakes, large animals including "elephants", a chain of hills protecting an irrigated plain from the northern winds. Moreover "Atlantis was larger than Africa and Asia combined" and the size of the irrigated plain was, transforming from the Egyptian stadia, some "270 by 350 km".

    We think that the data in the Platonic text (which are supported by a few independent references in Proclus, Theopompus and Plutarch) are plausible in the following context:

    -- The Atlantis civilization developed during the terminal phase of the last great glaciation. It was terminated by a catastrophe, of extraterrestrial origin, which led to the now confirmed fast melting of most ices covering north America (north of a line from Seattle to Washington) and northern Europe; this event is now rather precisely dated at circa 9500 BC, in agreement with the Platonic date.

    -- Atlantis was located in the island of Hispaniola, the Caribbean island now divided between Haiti and Santo Domingo. Notice that the local name of Hispaniola before Columbus was {\it Quisqueya}, meaning {\it Mother of Lands}. The islands beyond are then the other Caribbean islands, the continent beyond is America and the "true ocean" is the Pacific, which during the last Ice Age was almost completely surrounded by land, as related in the Platonic text.

    -- The geographical features of Hispaniola correspond quite well to those described by Critias, except for the dimensions of the island and of the irrigated plain. This disagreement can be explained by an easy error in the oral tradition, or most likely in the memory of Critias, who spent a night trying to remember the details of the story heard from his grandfather. So the size of the Atlantis {\it empire} became the size of the island, while the size of the island, which can be almost exactly inscribed in a rectangle of the given dimensions, became the size of the irrigated plain.

    -- The "disappearance" of Atlantis can be explained partly by some modification of its coastal profile when the melting of the ices previously locked on the continents led to the sea level rising some 60 meters, partly by the fact, only recently established, that the Gulf Stream, previously moving towards the Gibraltar straits, changed direction, moving as it does now towards Britain and Scandinavia. This led also probably to the formation or to an enlarged size of the Sargassus sea, to be identified with the Platonic "muddy sea".

    A consideration of the topography of Hispaniola suggests that the ruins of the capital city, if not completely destroyed by the catastrophic event (most probably a huge tsunami due to either an oceanic impact of a comet or an Apollo object, or to the tidal effects of a planet passing close to the Earth) lie under thick sediments in the bottom of Lake Henriquillo, close to the southern coast of Santo Domingo, near the border with Haiti.

    http://www.unibg.it/convegni/NEW_SCENARIOS/Abstracts/Spedicato.htm
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    Re: A Brief Account of the Destruction of the Indies, by Bartolome de las Casas

    Post by Maximus on Tue Mar 03, 2015 10:29 pm


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